Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement




This document describes the principles of good practice that Procesos de Mercado follows in its commitment to the integrity of academic content and the publication process. These guidelines apply to authors, reviewers, and editors. The journal commits itself to maintain maximum integrity in the published content.

Procesos de Mercado follows the essential principles of the “Committee On Publication Ethics” (COPE) (, a global non-profit organization whose goal is to help publishers and editors achieve high standards of editorial ethics. We adhere to their principles on dealing with acts of misconduct, thus committing to investigate misconduct allegations to ensure the paper's integrity (


Research Integrity

Papers published in Procesos de Mercado maintain high standards, adopting and respecting the following principles:

- Honesty in all aspects of research.

- Scrupulous care, thoroughness, and excellence in research practice.

- Transparency and open communication

- Care and respect for all research participants and subjects.

- Accountability both for one's research integrity and for that of others when behaviour falls short of our standards.

Anyone who believes that research published by Procesos de Mercado has not been conducted under these principles may raise concerns to the Editorial Board sending an email to Inquiries will follow COPE guidelines wherever possible.

The Editorial Board oversees, develops, and advises on best practices in editorial ethics throughout the journal. The Editorial Board may direct inquiries and make recommendations to the appropriate decision-making levels (e.g., recommend that the Scientific Board discusses an issue).


Editorial Process

Procesos de Mercado is committed to editorial independence, avoiding conflicts of interest, fear, or any other corporate, business, financial, or political influence.

The journal does not discriminate against authors, editors, or reviewers based on their characteristics or identity. It is committed to integrating diversity, eliminating barriers to inclusion, and promoting equity in all phases of our editorial process.

Our scholarly publishing program is overseen by the Editorial Board and the Scientific Board, which are integrated by academics from various universities worldwide who independently advise and approve publications.

Editorial decisions on manuscripts submitted to Procesos de Mercado are made by the Editorial Board based on independent peer-review reports. The Editorial Board approves the appointment of members of the Scientific Board and Advisory Board. The Advisory Board may advise on policy or ethics changes, or other matters affecting the development of the journal's activities. Still, its responsibilities do not include the decision to publish individual papers.

Procesos de Mercado does not tolerate abusive behaviour or correspondence towards journal staff and others involved in the publication process. If anyone interested in this process engages in such behaviour, we have the right to take action to protect others from this abuse. This may include, for example, withdrawing a manuscript from consideration or challenging clearly abusive peer review comments.


Peer review

Peer review is essential to maintain the quality level of our publications. Our standards are the following:

- Peer review is rigorous, fair, and effective.

-Editors and reviewers act under COPE's peer review best practice guidelines (

- Those who oversee the peer review process should be able to recognize the warning signs of fraudulent or manipulated peer review and raise any concerns by sending an email to The Editorial Board is responsible of supervising the peer review process.

- The Editorial Board supports editors and reviewers in investigating and acting on any suspicion of manipulated or fraudulent peer review.

- The Editorial Board protects the confidentiality of the participants in the peer review process.

- This journal operates under a double-blind peer-review model (the initial publication decision will be made within a maximum period of 90 days). The editor will initially assess all contributions for suitability for the journal. Once the manuscript is received, the Editor will decide on its initial admissibility to submit it for peer review within a period not exceeding 90 days from its receipt. This resolution may be conditioned to modifying the original text following the evaluators' reports and the Editor's final decision. Papers deemed suitable will be sent to a minimum of two independent expert referees to assess the paper's scientific quality. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of the articles. The Editor's decision is final. Articles written by members of the journal’s editorial board will be sent to referees not affiliated with the author or his institution. They will be carefully monitored to ensure no peer review bias.




Authorship and collaboration

Authors must ensure that they have written a completely original paper, and if authors have used the work and/or words of others, they must have cited them appropriately. Otherwise, the paper will be rejected by the journal’s editorial team.

Authors are advised to follow the following principles:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the paper; or to the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the paper; and/or
  2. Writing of the paper or critical revision of the paper for its important intellectual content; and/or
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; and
  4. Accepting responsibility for all aspects of the work and ensuring that questions regarding the accuracy or completeness of any part of the work are adequately investigated and resolved.

The author will be responsible of proofreading and revising the manuscript until the final decision.

We encourage authors to include in an acknowledgments section of their publication anyone who does not meet the criteria for authorship but has provided research or editorial assistance.

COPE offers extensive resources on authorship and authorship disputes, and we encourage everyone involved in editorial decisions to familiarize themselves with them. We integrate with established and emerging industry standards to increase authorship transparency (e.g., ORCID).



Any affiliation to a paper should represent the institution(s) at which the submitted research was conducted and/or supported and/or approved. For non-research content, affiliations should represent the institution(s) with which each author is currently affiliated.



Procesos de Mercado understands plagiarism as the use of ideas, words, data, or other material produced by another person without acknowledgment.

Plagiarism can occur concerning all types of sources and media, including:

- text, illustrations, musical quotations, extensive mathematical derivations, computer code, etc.;

- material downloaded from websites or extracted from manuscripts or other media

- published and unpublished material, including lectures, presentations, and gray literature.

We do not tolerate plagiarism in any of our publications and reserve the right to check all submissions using appropriate plagiarism-checking tools (Unicheck). Submissions containing suspected plagiarism, in whole or in part, will be rejected. If plagiarism is discovered after publication, we will proceed to the retraction and rejection of the manuscript. We expect our readers, reviewers, and editors to raise any suspicion of plagiarism by sending an email to


Duplicate and redundant publication

Duplicate publication, or "self-plagiarism", occurs when a work, or substantial parts of a work, are published more than once by the author(s) of the work without proper cross-referencing or justification for the overlap. This may occur in the same language or a different language.

We do not support substantial overlap between publications unless:

- it is considered that, from an editorial point of view, this will strengthen the scholarly discourse; and

- there is explicit approval of the original publication; and

- the original source is cited.

We expect our readers, reviewers, and editors to raise any suspicions of duplicate publication by sending an email to

When authors submit manuscripts to our journal, these manuscripts should not be under consideration or accepted for publication, neither in press, in another journal, book, or similar entity.

Any manuscript based on a thesis must rework the material and be written under the journal's style guidelines. When citing the thesis or reusing figures, authors should avoid self-plagiarism by properly citing and referencing any excerpts copied or adapted from the thesis.


Conflict of Interest

We try to ensure that any Procesos de Mercado publication is free from undue influence. All authors, editors or reviewers must disclose any relationship or interest that may inappropriately influence or bias their work. Conflicts of interest are situations that could be perceived as unduly influencing a paper's submission, review, or publication. They may be financial, non-financial, professional, contractual, or personal.

Examples of potential conflicts of interest include but are not limited to, financial interests (such as membership, employment, consulting, stock/equity ownership, fees, grants or other funds, paid expert testimony, and patent licensing agreements) and non-financial interests (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, personal beliefs).

The corresponding author should include a summary statement in the manuscript in a separate "Conflicts of Interest" section just before the list of bibliographical references. The statement should reflect all potential conflict of interest disclosures.

See below for examples of disclosures:

Conflicts of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received lecture fees from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C has participated as a consultant and expert witness for Company Z. Author D is the inventor of patent x.

If there are no conflicts, authors should indicate the following:

Conflicts of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Anyone suspecting undisclosed competing interests in connection with a published work should send an email to


Libel, Defamation, and Freedom of Speech

Freedom of speech is essential to Procesos de Mercado, but we do not support the publication of false statements that damage the reputation of individuals, groups, or organizations. Defamation will result in the refusal to publish the manuscript.


Retractions and Corrections

The Editor in Chief will consider retractions, corrections, or expressions of concern under the COPE Retraction Guidelines ( If an author is found to have made an error the appropriate correction will be made in the digital version of the journal. If the journal is found to have made an error the appropriate correction will be made in the digital version of the journal. Under exceptional circumstances, and at discretion of the Editorial Board, the journal may publish a list of errata.

Retractions are usually reserved for highly flawed papers whose findings or conclusions should not be relied upon or contain substantial plagiarism or life-threatening content. In these exceptional cases an article may be withdrawn from publication.

In exceptional cases, we may withdraw a paper from publication when we deem it necessary to comply with our legal obligations. This includes when we are concerned that the paper is defamatory, violates personal privacy or confidentiality laws, or is the subject of a court order. In these circumstances, we may remove the paper and post a notice clearly stating why the entire paper has been removed.


Image manipulation, falsification, and fabrication.

When research data are collected or presented in images, their modification can sometimes misrepresent the results obtained or their meaning. We recognize that there may be legitimate reasons to modify images. Still, we hope that authors will avoid doing so if it leads to falsification, fabrication, or misrepresentation of their results.


Fraudulent Research and Research Misconduct

Any publication with fraudulent results or research misconduct (including plagiarism, citation manipulation and data falsification/fabrication), will be retracted or an appropriate correction issued. For more information, see the Retractions and Corrections section of these guidelines.




Copyrights and Access to content

Procesos de Mercado is a hard copy journal published by Unión Editorial S.A.; in collaboration with the Faculty of Economics and Enterprise Sciences of Rey Juan Carlos University of Madrid. Hard copies of the journal are available for sale by subscription through Unión Editorial ( Notwithstanding this, and with the goal of achieving the greatest dissemination possible, once an issue of the journal has been printed in hard copy, its content is made available with free and open access at the journal’s website ( All published articles are available in PDF format and have a DOI assigned. Any reproduction of the publications of the journal will incorporate a complete reference.

The DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is the most widely used indicator for identifying electronic scientific papers. It guarantees to go directly to the object it identifies and is a secure and unique link between users and information providers.

To report counterfeiting, copyright infringement, or suspected piracy, please send an email to



Procesos de Mercado follows COPE's “Principles of Transparency and Good Practice in Science Publishing” ( The journal supports transparency and openness around data, code, and other materials associated with research. Authors shall maintain accurate records of supporting evidence to enable others to understand, verify, and reproduce new findings. We encourage authors to add the data source used in their manuscript where appropriate.


Fair Access

Procesos de Mercado is a physical hard copy journal that is available for sale by subscription through Unión Editorial ( Notwithstanding this the content of the journal is also available in electronic format with open and free access at the journal’s website ( It is a peer-reviewed journal of general interest, aiming to disseminate knowledge to the broadest possible audience and serve the academic community in all countries. We will never be complicit in censorship and we support the COPE Statement on Censorship (

No fees are charged to the authors in order to present their works for publication in the journal.




The sources of income are based on subscriptions ( to the journal. Social media (Linkedin and Facebook) and email communication are potent tools to disseminate the content of our journal and reach new readers. However, such onward communication should never be at the expense of the integrity of the content.

Our marketing standards are the following:

- Marketing communications must not incite readers to break the law and must not be misleading. 

- Advertisers must have documentary evidence to substantiate claims that the general public can consider factually and objectively substantiated.


Metrics, Usage, and Reporting

Procesos de Mercado does not claim to control or influence metrics to illustrate the impact and reception of our content. We are not responsible for metrics and rankings developed by third parties.

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